Al-Qanṭara, Vol 33, No 2 (2012)

Entre helenismo y arabización. Sobre la formación de una identidad etnolingüística de las comunidades melkitas en el corazón del poder islámico


https://doi.org/10.3989/alqantara.2011.017

Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala
Universidad de Cordoba, España

Resumen


El presente artículo se ocupa de la comunidad melkita, en tanto que grupo que se conformó como una identidad eclesiástica surgida en el periodo islámico, en el corazón del Islam y por tanto no en Constantinopla. De ahí que insistamos en que aquellos rasgos de identidad de esta comunidad que vienen dados por la fe de la Ortodoxia bizantina, formada a partir de grupos de calcedonianos siriacos anti-monotelitas como grupo diferenciado de los jacobitas, que serán identificados posteriormente con los cristianos del califato omeya que aceptaron las enseñanzas del sexto concilio ecuménico de la iglesia imperial bizantina en el año 681. En este contexto, el uso de la denominación melkita no ha de entenderse como sinónimo de «ortodoxos griegos», sino de «calcedonianos», que en el caso de los cristianos siriacos identifica a aquellos que siguieron el dogma diotelita.

Palabras clave


melkitas; omeyas; calcedonianos; árabe; arabización

Texto completo:


PDF

Referencias


Abbs, I., Ta'rkh Bild al-Sha'm f l-ar al-umaw 41-132 H./661-750 CE, Amman, al Jmiah al-Urdunniyah, 1999, 2nd ed.

Aigrain, R., "Arabie", in Baudrillart, A. (dir.), Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, Paris, Letouzey et Ané, 1924, vol. III, pp. 1158-1339.

Atiya, A. S., "St. John Damascene: Survey of the Unpublished Arabic Versions of his Works in Sinai", in Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of Hamilton A.R. Gibb, Leiden, Brill, 1965, pp. 73-83.

Atiya, A. S., A History of Eastern Christianity, London, Methven, 1968.

Bardy, G. (ed.), Eusèbe de Césarée. Histoire ecclésiastique, Paris, Editions du Cerf, 1952, 1955 and 1958, 3 vols.

Baumstark, A., Geschichte der syrischen Literatur mit Ausschluß der christlichpalästinensischen Texte, Bonn, A Weber, 1922 (reed. Berlin, 1968).

Becker, D., The Risla of Judah Ben Quraysh, Tel-Aviv, Tel-Aviv University, 1984.

Beyer, K., The Aramaic Language: Its Distribution and Subdivisions, transl. from the German by J. F. Healey, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck, 1986.

Bierman, I. A., Writing Signs: The Fatimid Public Text, Berkeley-Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1998.

Blake, R., "La littérature grecque en Palestine au VIIIe siècle", Le Muséon, 78 (1965), pp. 367-80.

Blau, Joshua, The Emergence and Linguistic Background of Judaeo-Arabic. A Study of the Origins of Middle Arabic, Jerusalem, Ben Zui Institute, 1981. PMCid:348807

Blau, Joshua, "The Influence of Living Aramaic on Ancient South Palestinian Christian Arabic", in Sokoloff, M. (ed.), Arameans, Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Tradition, Ramat-Gan, Bar-Ilan University Press, 1983, pp. 141-142.

Blau, Joshua, "A Melkite Arabic literary lingua franca from the second half of the first millennium", BSOAS, 57 (1994), pp. 14-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00028068

Bowersock, G. W, Roman Arabia, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1983.

Bowersock, G. W., Hellenism in Late Antiquity, Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Press, 1993.

Bowersock, G. W., Mosaics as History. The Near East from Late Antiquity to Islam, Cambridge, Mass.-London, The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 2006.

Brock, S. P., "A Syriac Fragment on the Sixth Council", Oriens Christianus, 57 (1973), pp. 63-71.

Chabot, J.-B. (ed. and transl.), Chronicon Anonymum ad A.D. 819; Chronicon Anonymum ad annum Christi 1234 pertinens, Leuven, Imprimerie Orientaliste L. Durbecq, 1937.

Chabot, J.-B. (ed. and transl.), Chronique de Michel le Syrien, patriarche jacobite d'Antioche (1166-1199), Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1899, 1901 and 1905, 4 vol.

Cook, M. A., "The Origins of Kalm", BSOAS, 43 (1980), pp. 32-43.

Cook, S. A., A glossary of the Aramaic inscriptions, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1898.

Corriente, F., "The Psalter fragment from the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus: A birth certificate of Naba Arabic", in Monferrer-Sala, J.P. (ed.), Eastern Crossroads: Essays on Medieval Christian Legacy, Piscataway, NJ, Gorgias Press, 2007, pp. 303-332.

Crone, P. and Cook, M., Hagarism, The making of the Islamic World, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1977. PMCid:2464523

Crone, P., "Were the Qays and Yemen of the Umayyad period political parties?", Der Islam, 71 (1994), pp. 44-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/islm.1994.71.1.1

Dennet, D. C. Jr., Conversion and Poll Tax in Early Islam, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1950 (rep. Delhi, 2000).

Desremaux, A., "The Birth of a New Aramaic Script in Bilad al-Sham at the End of the Byzantine Period", in Bakhit, M. A. and Schick, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Bilad al-Sham, 24-29 October 1987, Amman, University of Jordan, 1989, vol. II, pp. 26-36.

Devreesse, R., "Le Christianisme dans la péninsule sinaïtique dès origines à l'arrivée des Musulmans, Revue biblique, 49 (1940), pp. 205-223.

Devreesse, R., "Le christianisme dans la Province d'Arabie", Revue Biblique, 50-52 (1941-1944), pp. 110-146.

Dick, I., Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem, Boston, Sophia Press, 2004.

Donner, F. M., The early Islamic conquests, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1981.

Donner, F. M., "Umayyad Efforts at Legitimation: The Silent Heritage of the Umayyads", in Borrut, R. and Cobb, P. M. (ed.), Héritages Omeyyades/Umayyad Legacies, Leiden, Brill, 2010, pp. 187-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004184749.i-560.52

Drijvers, H. J. W. and Healey, J. F., The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa & Osrhoene. Texts, Translations and Commentary, Leiden-Boston-Köln, Brill, 1999. PMid:11233931

El Cheikh, N. M., Byzantium as Viewed by the Arabs, Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 2004.

Every, G., "Syrian Christians in Palestine in the Early Middle Ages", The Eastern Churches Quarterly, 7 (1946), pp. 363-372.

Ferré, A., "Chrétiens de Syrie et de Mésopotamie aux deux premiers siècles de l'islam", Islamochristiana, 14 (1988), pp. 71-106.

Fiey, J. M., "Rm a l'Est de l'Euphrate", Le Muséon, 90, 3-4 (1977), pp. 365-420.

Fiey, J. M., "Umayyads in Syriac Sources", in Bakhit, M. A. and Schick, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Bilad al-Sham, 24-29 October 1987, Amman, University of Jordan, 1989, vol. II, pp. 11-25.

Fortescue, A., The Eastern Churches Trilogy. I. The Orthodox Eastern Church, London, Catholic Trust Society, 1929.

Fortescue, A., The Eastern Churches Trilogy. II. The Lesser Easternn Churches, London, Catholic Trust Society, 1913.

Fowden, G. and Fowden, E. K., Studies on Hellenism, Christianity and the Umayyads, Athens, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2004.

Fowden, G., Quayr Amra: Art and the Umayyad Elite in Late Antique Syria, Berkeley, Ca, University of California Press, 2004.

Frend, W. H. C., "The Monks and the Survival of the East Roman Empire in the Fifth Century", Past and Present, 54 (1972), pp. 3-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/54.1.3

Gaube, H., "Arabs in the Sixth Century Syria: Some Archaeological Observations", in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bilad al-Sham, 20-25 April 1974, Yarmuk, Yarmuk University, 1984, pp. 61-65.

Gorea, M., "Coupes magiques syriaques et manichéennes en provenance de Mésopotamie", in Briquel-Chatonet, F., Débie, M. and Desremaux, A. (ed.), Les inscriptions syriaques, Paris, Geuthner, 2004. PMid:15634613

Graf, G., Die christlich-arabische Literatur bis zur fränkischen Zeit (Ende des 11. Jahrhunderts). Eine literarhistorische Skizze, Freiburg im Breisgau, Herder, 1905.

Graf, G., Verzeichnis arabischer kirchlicher Termini, Leuven, Imprimerie Orientaliste L. Durbecq, 1954.

Griffith, S. H., "Eutychius of Alexandria on the Emperor Theophilus and Iconoclasm in Byzantium: A Tenth Century Moment in Christian Apologetics in Arabic", Byzantion, 52 (1982), pp. 154-190.

Griffith, S. H., "The monks of Palestine and the growth of Christian literature in Arabic", The Muslim World, 78 (1988), pp. 1-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1988.tb02807.x

Griffith, S. H., Theodore Ab Qurrah: The Intellectual Profile of an Arab Christian Writer of the First Abbasid Century, Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv University, 1992.

Griffith, S. H., "From Aramaic to Arabic: The Languages of the Monasteries of Palestine in the Byzantine and Early Islamic Periods", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 51 (1997), pp. 11-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1291760

Griffith, S. H., "The Monk in the Emir's Majlis: Reflections on a Popular Genre of Christian Literary Apologetics in Arabic in the Early Islamic Period", in Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava (ed.), The Majlis: Interreligious Encounters in Medieval Islam, Wiesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz, 1999, pp. 13-65.

Griffith, S. H., "Apologetics and Historiography in the Annals of Eutychios of Alexandria: Christian Self-Definition in the World of Islam", in Ebied, R. and Teule, H. (ed.), Studies on the Christian Arabic Heritage in honour of Father Prof. Samir Khalil Samir at the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday, Louvain, Peeters, 2004, pp. 65-89. PMid:14706961

Griffith, S. H., "Answers for the Shaykh: A 'Melkite' Arabic text from Sinai and the Doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation in 'Arab Orthodox' Apologetics", in Grypeou, E. et al. (ed.), The Encounter of Eastern Christianity with Early Islam, Leiden-Boston, Brill, 2006, pp. 277-309.

Griffith, S. H., "The Syriac letters of Patriarch Timothy I and the Birth of Christian Kalm in the Mu,tazilite Milieu of Baghdad and Basrah in Early islamic Times", in van Bekkum, W.J. et al. (ed.), Syriac Polemics: Studies in Honour of Gerritt Jan Reinink, Leuven-Paris-Dudley, Peeters, 2007, pp. 103-132.

Griffith, S. H., The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam, Princeton-Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2008.

Griffith, S. H., "John of Damascus and the Church in Syria in the Umayyad Era: The Intellectual and Cultural Milieu of Orthodox Christians in the World of Islam", Hugoye 11, 2 (2008), pp. 207-237, [on line], available at http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol11No2/HV11N2Griffith.html [viewed 20/08/2012].

Griffith, S. H., " 'Melkites', 'Jacobites', and the Christological Controversies in Arabic in Third/Ninth Century Syria", in Thomas, D. (ed.), Syrian Christians under Islam: The First Thousand Years, Leiden, Brill, 2011.

Gutas, D., Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early, Abbasid Society (2nd-4th/8th-10th centuries), London-New York, Routledge, 1998.

Haddad, R., "La phonétique de l'arabe chrétien vers 700", in Canivet, P. and Rey-Coquais, J.-P. (ed.), La Syrie de Byzance a l'Islam, VIIe-VIIIe siècles, Damas, Adrien Maisonneuve, 1992, pp. 159-164.

Haldon, J. F., " 'Citizens of Ancient Lineage…'? The Role and Significance of Syrians in the Byzantine Élite in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries", in van Bekkum, W. J. et al. (ed.), Syriac Polemics: Studies in Honour of Gerritt Jan Reinink, Leuven-Paris-Dudley, Peeters, 2007, pp. 91-102.

Harrak, A. (transl.), Chronicle of Zuqnn. Parts III and IV, A.D. 488-775, Toronto, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1999. PMCid:59418

Healey, J. F., "Lexical Loans in Early Syriac: a Comparison with Nabataean Aramaic", Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici, 12 (1995), pp. 75-84.

Hitti, Ph. K., History of Syria, including Lebanon and Palestine, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1951, 2 vol. (reed. Piscataway, NJ, 2004, 2nd ed.).

Howard-Johnston, J., Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208593.001.0001

Hoyland, R. H., "Jacob of Edessa on Islam", in Reinink, G. J. and Klugkist, A. C. (ed.), After Bardaisan. Studies on Continuity and Change in Syriac Christianity in Honour of Professor Han J.W. Drijvers, Louvain, Peeters, 1999, pp. 149-160.

Kennedy, H. "The Melkite Church from the Islamic Conquest to the Crusades: Continuity and Adaptation in the Byzantine Legacy", in The 17th International Byzantine Congress: The Major Papers, New Rochelle, NY, Caratzas, 1986, pp. 325-343.

Kennedy, H. N., "The Last Century of Byzantine Syria: A reinterpretation", in Kennedy, H. N., The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2006, pp. 141-83. PMid:16787886

Knauf, E. A., "Umm el-Jiml: An Arab Town in Late Antiquity", Revue Biblique, 91 (1984), pp. 578-86.

Kraemer, J. L., Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: the Cultural Revival during the Buyid Age, Leiden, Brill, 1986.

Al-Khr, I., "al-Malkiyyn: bariyarkiyyatu-hum al-ankiyyah wa-lughatuhum al-waaniyyah wa-l-taqsiyyah", Al-Mashriq, 34 (1936), pp. 37-66.

Little, D., Peacemakers in Action: Profiles of Religion in Conflict Resolution, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

MacEvitt, C., The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Al-Mas,d, Kitb al-tanbh wa-l-ishrf, de Goeje, M. J. (ed.), Leiden, Brill, 1894.

Mayerson, P., "The Desert of Southern Palestine According to Byzantine Sources", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 107, 2 (1963), pp. 160-72.

McCullough, W. St., A Short History of Syriac Christianity to the Rise of Islam, Chico, Calif., Scholars Press, 1982.

Meimaris, Y. and Kritikakou-Nikolaropoulou, K.I., Inscriptions from Palaestina Tertia. Vol. Ia: The Greek Inscriptions from Ghor es-Safi (Byzantine Zoora), Athens, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2005.

Michael the Syrian, Chronique, Chabot, J.-B. (ed. and transl.), Paris, Ernest Leroux 1899, 1901, 1905, 3 vol.

Micheau, F. "Eastern Christianities (eleventh to fourteenth century): Copts, Melkites, Nestorians and Jacobites", in Angold, M. (ed.), Eastern Christianity, Cambridge, Cambridge university Press, 2006, pp. 373-403.

Millar, F., The Roman Near East, 31 BC – AD 337, Cambridge, Mass.-London, Harvard University Press, 1993.

Monferrer Sala, J. P., "«Apologética racionalista» de Ab Qurrah en el Maymar f wud al-liq wa-l-dn al-qawm II/2,12-14", Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía, 22 (2005), pp. 41-56.

Monferrer Sala, J. P., "Notas lexicográficas sobre textos árabes extraislámicos", Estudios de Dialectología Norteafricana y Andalusí, 9 (2005), pp. 73-92.

Motzki, H., The Biography of Muammad: the issue of the sources, Leiden-Boston, Brill, 2000.

Müller-Kessler, C., Grammatik des Christlich-Palästinisch-Aramäischen. I. Schriftlehre, Lautlehre, Formenlehre, Hildesheim-Zürich-New York, Georg Olms, 1991.

Nasrallah, J., Saint Jean de Damas. Son époque, sa vie, son oeuvre, Harissa, Saint Paul, 1950.

Nasrallah, J., "Syriens et Suriens", in Symposium Syriacum 1972 (célebré dans les jours 26-31 octobre 1972 à l'Institut Pontifical Oriental de Rome), Rome, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 1974, pp. 487-503.

Nasrallah, J., Histoire du mouvement littéraire dans l'église melchite du Ve au XXe siècle, Damas, Institut Français de Damas, 1996. PMCid:161111

Nau, F., "Histoires d'Ahoudemmeh et de Marouta, suivies du Traité d'Ahoudemmeh sur l'homme", in Graffin, R. and Nau, F. (ed.), Patrologia Orientalis III, Paris, Firmin-Didot et Cie, 1909, pp. 5-51.

Nau, F., Les arabes chrétiens de Mésopotamie et de Syrie du VIIe au VIIIe siècle, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1933.

Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.), Theophanis Chronographia, Bonn, Weber, 1839, 1841, Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, 2 vol.

Palmer, A., Monk and mason on the Tigris frontier: The early history of ur Abdin, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Palmer, A., The Seventh-Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1993, with the collaboration of S. Brock and R. Hoyland.

Parry, K., "Byzantine and Melkite Iconophiles under Iconoclasm", in Dendrino, Ch. et al. (ed.), Porphyrogenita: Essays on the History and Literature of Byzantium and the Latin East in Honour of Julian Chrysostomides, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2003, pp. 137-151. PMid:12499394

Peristeris, A., "Literary and Scribal Activities at the Monastery of St. Sabas", in Patrich, J. (ed.), The Sabaite Heritage in the Orthodox Church from the Fifth Century to the Present, Leuven, Peeters, 2001, pp. 171-194.

Peters, F. E., "The Arabs on the Frontier of Syria before Islam", in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bilad al-Sham, 20-25 April 1974, Yarmuk, Yarmuk University, 1984, pp. 141-173.

Piccirillo, M., L'Arabia cristiana. Dalla provincia imperiale al primo periodo islamico, Milano, Jaca Book, 2002.

Qedar, S., "Copper coinage of Syria in the seventh and eighth century A.D.", Israel Numismatic Journal, 10 (1988-89), pp. 27-39.

Renaudot, E., Historia Patriarcharum Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum A.D. marco usque ad finem saeculi XIII, Paris, Franciscum Fournier, 1713.

Rothstein, G., Die Dynastie der Lakhmiden in al-Hira, Ein Versuch zur arabisch-persischen Geschichte zur Zeit der Sasaniden, Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1968 (reed.).

Sahas, D. J., John of Damascus on Islam: The "Heresy of the Ishmaelites", Leiden, Brill, 1972.

Samir, Samir Khalil, "La tradition arabe chrétienne. État de la question, problèmes et besoins", in Samir, Samir Khalil (ed.), Actes du premier congrès international d'études arabes chrétiennes (Goslar, septembre 1980), Rome, Pontificium Institutum Studiorum Orientalium, 1982, pp. 21-120.

Samir, Samir Khalil, "Madkhal ilà al-turth al-arab al-mas al-qadm", adq al-Khin, 23 (1983), pp. 35-49, 83-102, 195-210.

Samir, Samir Khalil, "Qui est l'interlocuteur musulman du patriarche syrien Jean III (631-648)?, in Drijvers, H. J. W. et al. (ed.), IV Symposium Syriacum 1984: Literary Genres in Syriac Literature (Gröningen – Oosterhesselen 10-12 September), Rome, Pontificium Institutum Studiorum Orientalium, 1987, pp. 387-400.

Samir, Samir Khalil, "Michel évêque melkite de Damas au 9e siècle. A propos de Bi?r Ibn al-Sirr", Orientalia Christiana Periodica, 53, 2 (1987), pp. 439-441.

Samir, Samir Khalil, Ab Qurrah: al-Srah wa-l-marji,, Beirut, Dr al- Mashriq, 2000, 2 fasc.

Samir, Samir Khalil, Ab Qurrah. Vida, bibliografía y obras, Monferrer-Sala, J. P. (transl.), Córdoba, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Córdoba, 2005.

Sauget, J.-M., "La littérature arabe chrétienne ancienne", in Sauget, J.-M., Littératures et manuscrits des chrétiens syriaques et arabes. Recueil d'articles publié par L. Duval-Arnould et F. Rilliet, Vatican City, Bibliotecam Apostólica Vaticana, 1998, pp. 147-174.

Schick, R., The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule: A Historical and Archaeological Study, Princeton, NJ, The Darwin Press, 1995. PMCid:42122

Segal, J. B., Edesa, 'the Blessed City', London, Oxford University Press, 1970.

Severus b. al-Muqaffa,, Historia patriarcharum alexandrinorum, Seybold, C. F. (ed.), Leuven, Secrétariat du Corpussco, 1910, 1962, 2 vol.

Shahîd, I., "Ghassanid and Umayyad structures: A case of Byzance après Byzance", Canivet, P. and Rey-Coquais, J.-P. (ed.), La Syrie de Byzance à l'Islam, VIIe-VIIIe siècles, Damas, Institut Français de Damas, 1992, pp. 299-307.

Shahîd, I., Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, Washington DC, Dumbarton Oaks, 1995, 2 vol.

Shahîd, I., "Sigillography in the service of history: new light", in Sode, C. and Takakcs, S. (ed.), Novum Millennium. Studies dedicated to Paul Speck, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2001, pp. 369-378.

Smith, J.P. (ed.), Extracts from the Ecclessiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus, Leiden, Brill, 1909.

Swanson, M. N., The Coptic Papacy in Islamic Egypt (641-1517), Cairo-New York, The American University in Cairo Press, 2010. Al-Tabar, Annales, De Goeje, M. J. (ed.), Leiden, Brill, 1898.

Thomason, Sarah G., Language contact: an introduction, Edinburgh-Washington, Edinburg University Press-Georgtown University Press, 2001.

Trimingham, J. Spencer, Christianity Among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times, Beirut, Librairie du Liban, 1979.

Tsafrir, Y., "Trade workshops and shops in Bet Shean/Scythopolis, 4th-8th centuries", in Mango, M. M. (ed.), Byzantine Trade, 4th-12th centuries, Franham, Surrey, Ashgate, 2009, pp. 61-82.

Vailhé, S., "Les écrivains de Mar-Saba", Echos d'Orient, 2 (1898-99), pp. 33-47.

Vailhé, S., "Le monastère de Saint-Sabas", Echos d'Orient, 3 (1899-1900), pp. 18-28, pp. 168-77.

Van Bekkum, W. J., "The 'Risla' of Yehuda Ibn Quraysh and its Place in Hebrew Linguistics", in Koerner, K. et al. (ed.), The History of Linguistics in the Near East, Amsterdam-Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 1983, pp. 71-91.

Vasiliev, A., "Kitab al-Unvan", in Graffin, R. and Nau, F. (ed.), Patrologia Orientalis III, Paris, Firmin-Didot et Cie, 1910.

Versteegh, K., Pidginization and creolization: the case of Arabic, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 1988. PMid:3340223

Versteegh, K., The Arabic Language, New York, Columbia University, 1997.

Violet, B., "Ein zweisprachiges Psalmfragment aus Damascus", Orientalistische Litteratur-Zeitung, 4 (1901), pp. 384-403, 425-488

Vööbus, A., History of Ascetism in the Syrian Orient: A Contribution to the History of Culture in the Near East. II. Early Monasticism in Mesopotamia and Syria, Leuven, Secrétariat du Corpussco, 1959, 1960, 2 vol.

Wallace-Hadrill, D. S., Christian Antioch: A study of early Christian thought in the East, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511555343

Watt, J. W., "Graeco Syriac Tradition and Arabic Philosophy in Bar Hebraeus", in Teule, H. et al. (ed.), The Syriac Renaissance, Leuven-Paris-Walpole, Ma, Peeters, 2010, pp. 123-133.

Wellhausen, J., Das arabische Reich und seine Sturz, Berlin, G. Reimer, 1902.

Wilde, C., "Lingua sacra? Some reflections on Christian discussions of fa'il al-suryniyya and ijz al-Qur'n", in Monferrer-Sala, J. P. (ed.), Eastern Crossroads: Essays on Medieval Christian Legacy, Piscataway, NJ, Gorgias Press, 2007, pp. 61-82. PMid:17006695

Wilfong, T. G., "The non-Muslim communities: Christian communities", in Petry, C. F. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Egypt. I: Islamic Egypt, 640-1517, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 175-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521471374.008

Wright, W. (ed. and transl.), Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, composed in Syriac A.D. 507, London, Cambridge University Press, 1882.




Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista alqantara.cchs@cchs.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es