Al-Qanṭara, Vol 34, No 1 (2013)

El término mamlūk y la condición de esclavo durante el sultanato mameluco


https://doi.org/10.3989/alqantara.2013.001

Koby Yosef
Bar Ilan University, Israel

Resumen


Los estudiosos del sultanato mameluco generalmente sostienen que todos los mamlūk formaban parte de una élite que se sentía orgullosa de su origen esclavo incluso después de ser liberados. En este artículo se argumenta que esas afirmaciones están basadas en una interpretación errónea del término mamlūk según su uso en las fuentes mamelucas. El término mamlūk tiene un doble significado: esclavo y sirviente, y expresa frecuentemente subordinación, obediencia y servidumbre. Nunca se utiliza como expresión de orgullo de la condición de esclavo o de un origen esclavo. No hay evidencias de que los mamlūk liberados se sintieran orgullosos de su anterior condición de esclavos; por el contrario, los esclavos liberados con aspiraciones hicieron grandes esfuerzos para borrar su pasado servil pretendiendo un origen elevado o creando lazos matrimoniales con las familias más tradicionales. Los mamlūk eran considerados como 《propiedades》 y carecían de una identidad legal en sí mismos. Por lo general eran liberados solo tras la muerte de su amo y se veían a sí mismos como esclavos por carecer de lazos familiares con sus amos. Solo unos pocos, excepcionalmente, conseguían una liberación completa de su estatus y conseguían convertirse en miembros de una élite dirigente con lazos familiares. Parece que desde el tercer reinado de al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Qalāwūn, la esclavización de los mamlūk turcos que habían sido vendidos por sus familias se convirtió en una formalidad. Por otro lado, los mamlūk que no eran turcos, generalmente cautivos de guerra cristianos, eran discriminados y despreciados; solo se les liberaba cuando eran ancianos y se les impedía establecer lazos matrimoniales con los Qalawuníes así como crear sus propias familias siendo jóvenes. Eran percibidos por sus contemporáneos como 《esclavos》 que los turcos mamlūk .

Palabras clave


mamelucos; Sultanato mameluco; condición de esclavo; esclavitud militar; élites de esclavos

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