Al-Qanṭara, Vol 39, No 1 (2018)

El origen del isnād y la revuelta de al-Mujtār b. Abī ‘Ubayd en Kūfa (66-7/685-7)


https://doi.org/10.3989/alqantara.2018.001

Pavel Pavlovitch
Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Bulgaria
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6725-5302

Resumen


Durante el último siglo de estudios orientales, la cuestión de cuándo y dónde llegaron a consolidarse las tradiciones proféticas (ḥadīṯ, pl. aḥādīṯ) con líneas válidas de transmisión (isnād, pl. asānīd) ha atraído la atención de un considerable número de investigadores que se dedicaron a la cuestión fundamental de la historicidad del ḥadīṯ. En este trabajo, revisaré las teorías existentes sobre los orígenes del isnād, orígenes que se datan o bien en la vida de los Compañeros del Profeta, o bien a finales del siglo II de la hégira, es decir 816 d.C. Basándome en una hasta ahora olvidada tradición y en dos premisas de tipo metodológico, asociaré el comienzo de la atribución de autoridad en hadices legales y teológicos con las postrimerías de la revuelta de al-Mujtār b. Abī ‘Ubayd al-Ṯaqafī en Kūfa (66-7/685-7). En el curso del siglo II/VIII, la institución del isnād se expandió por los mayors centros de enseñanza en el califato y entró en la disciplina de la historia. Esta falta de igualdad geográfica y tipológica de la evolución del isnād dio lugar a esas teorías conflictivas respecto a su cronología.

Palabras clave


isnād; sanad; origen; desarrollo; fitna; Guerra civil; Ibn Sīrīn; al-Mujtār; riŷāl; ḥadīṯ; jabar; criticism; sunna; bida‘

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