Al-Qanṭara, Vol 39, No 2 (2018)

La sintaxis del elativo en árabe clásico y árabe moderno escrito


https://doi.org/10.3989/alqantara.2018.014

Marcin Michalski
Adam Mickiewicz University, Polonia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4550-905X

Resumen


El presente estudio ofrece una visión diacrónica de algunas de las construcciones propias del elativo árabe, partiendo de las etapas tempranas del árabe clásico. Desde entonces, el elativo ha experimentado un desarrollo notable y ha producido varios usos sintácticos desconocidos para los gramáticos árabes clásicos. Especialmente interesante es la evolución histórica y las relaciones semánticas entre las tres estructuras que expresan habitualmente la noción del superlativo en el árabe escrito moderno: 1) elativo + sustantivo singular indeterminado en genitivo (akbaru madīnatin), 2) elativo + sustantivo ñural determinado en genitivo (akbaru l-muduni), y 3) elativo usado como atributo de un sustantivo determinado (al-madīnatu l-akbaru), todas ellas traducibles como “la ciudad más grande”, pero diferentes entre sí en ciertos aspectos. Se puede observar una tendencia a crear simetrías en el sistema sintáctico del elativo como atributo adjetival, por una parte, y, por otra parte, la forma de expresar una gradación comparativo - superlativo mediante la misma estructura sintáctica (atribución adjuetival) que solo difiere en cuanto a la (in)determinación. Además, una estructura que solo se documenta de forma marginal en árabe clásico, es decir, los elativos de esquema C1uC2C + sustantivo plural en genitive, pasa a ser usado de forma frecuente en el árabe escrito moderno. El plural que le corresponde, C1uC2Cayāt, es una innovación cuya expansión, particularmente en el lenguaje periodístico, se puede atribuir a la tendencia a la desambiguación.

Palabras clave


gramática árabe; sintaxis árabe; adjetivo árabe; elativo árabe; comparativo árabe; superlativo árabe

Texto completo:


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